Comprehensive News Analysis

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis. Dec 29th, 2023 CNA. Download PDF l www.insightdaily.in


TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Is Pegasus spyware targeting journalists in India?
ECONOMY
1. India’s stationary course in the shipping value chain
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Houthi attacks: a threat to global shipping?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Union Minister fails to break stalemate over SYL canal
2. 82nd annual Indian History Congress
3. Women account for 49% of Ayushman cards, says Ministry
4. Spectre of civil war in Sudan as civilians search for arms fearing rival militias
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine


Category: ECONOMY

1. India’s stationary course in the shipping value chain

Syllabus: Infrastructure Ports

Mains: India’s stationary course in the shipping value chain

Context:​ India’s maritime landscape, with its long coastline and strategic positioning, presents a paradox — a rich tradition of ship-owning and seafaring but a lag in progressing up the shipping value chain. As global shipping dynamics evolve, India’s position in the industry faces challenges, particularly in shipbuilding and ownership.

Issues:

  • Historical Advantages: India had a head start in the shipping industry until the late 1980s, with a tradition of ship-owning and modern ship-owning contributions. A unique case of an Indian Navy officer commissioning giant oil tankers showcased India’s potential in the industry.
  • Missed Opportunities: While India initiated in the shipping sector ahead of China, the latter leapfrogged since the late 1980s, leaving India behind. Despite a tradition of ship-owning, chartering, and modern ship-owning, India has not ascended the shipping value chain. The state-owned Shipping Corporation of India has faced challenges, impacting the order book of Indian shipyards.
  • Limited Shipbuilding Presence: India’s share in global shipbuilding has dropped to practically zero, contrary to the Maritime Agenda 2020’s aim to achieve a modest 5% share. The lack of emphasis on shipbuilding and ownership in the Maritime India Vision 2030 poses a significant hurdle.

Significance:

  • Economic Impact: India’s inability to move up the shipping value chain affects its economic potential. While Indian seafarers and ship management companies contribute an estimated $6 billion in foreign exchange annually, the absence of a robust shipbuilding and ownership sector hampers comprehensive economic growth.
  • Strategic Importance: Shipbuilding is crucial not only for industrial growth but also for strategic power. A strong naval base relies on a robust shipbuilding sector. India’s geopolitical position and extensive coastline make shipbuilding integral to bolstering maritime capabilities.

Solution:

  • Government Initiatives: A dedicated government plan, akin to China’s, focusing on ramping up shipbuilding and ownership, can propel India forward. Support for private shipyards and shipowners, aligned with a comprehensive vision, is crucial.
  • Global Collaboration: Collaborations with global players in shipbuilding and ownership can bring expertise and technology transfer, fostering India’s capabilities. Joint ventures and partnerships can accelerate the learning curve and enhance competitiveness.
  • Policy Reforms: Clear and consistent policies, including incentives and sops, are essential to attract private investment into shipbuilding. Streamlining regulatory processes and addressing bureaucratic hurdles can create an environment conducive to industry growth.

Nut Graf: India’s shipping industry, with its historical advantages, stands at a crossroads. Addressing the challenges and seizing opportunities in shipbuilding and ownership is pivotal for India’s economic growth, strategic positioning, and global influence.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding Green Hydrogen:
  1. During its production, renewable energy sources are employed to generate electricity, which is then used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
  2. It is a highly flammable gas.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: Renewable energy sources are employed to generate electricity, which is then used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. This process results in a clean and emission-free fuel that has immense potential to replace fossil fuels and reduce carbon emissions.
Another method of producing is from biomass, which involves the gasification of biomass to produce hydrogen. Both these production methods are clean and sustainable, making Green Hydrogen an attractive option for the transition to a low-carbon future.
It is a highly flammable gas.

Q2. Consider the following statements regarding Red Sea:
  1. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen border the Red Sea. 
  2. It is linked to the Indian Ocean via the Bab el Mandeb Strait and the Gulf of Aden.
  3. It is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world.

How many of the above statements is/are incorrect?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: Red Sea – situated between Africa and Asia, is an inlet of the Indian Ocean. To the south, it connects with the Indian Ocean through the Bab el Mandeb Strait and the Gulf of Aden.
The northern border features the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez, leading to the Suez Canal. The sea’s formation traces back to the splitting of the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa through the movement of the Red Sea Rift. Known for its high salinity resulting from intense evaporation and minimal precipitation, the Red Sea receives no significant rivers or streams. Crucially positioned as part of the sea routes connecting Europe, the Persian Gulf, and East Asia, the Red Sea witnesses heavy shipping traffic- – 12% of worldwide trade. Shares borders with six countries: Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, and Djibouti.

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding Pegasus:
  1. Like an SQL injection attack, this type of attack entails injecting harmful code into a website. 
  2. It targets the visitor as well as the website.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: Pegasus – It falls under the category of malicious software or malware known as spyware. Its purpose is to infiltrate devices discreetly, without users’ awareness, and collect personal information, which is then transmitted to the individual or entity employing the spyware.
Developed by the Israeli firm NSO Group that was set up in 2010.

Q4. Consider the following statements:
  1. The BSF, CRPF, and CISF fall within the category of the Central Armed Police Force (CAPF).
  2. The personnel of the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) are assigned the duty of safeguarding industrial units and government infrastructure.
  3. The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is tasked with the duty of upholding law and order in both states and union territories. 

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: CAPF, CRPF and CISF- The Indian Armed Forces and the Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) collectively serve as the defense wall. CAPF is entrusted with internal security and operates through its training centres and equipped personnel. The BSF, CRPF, and CISF fall under the CAPF category, each led by IPS officers. Notably, the Border Security Force (BSF) personnel safeguard the country’s borders, stationed along the borders of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Their responsibilities extend beyond border security to maintaining tranquility and combating transnational criminal activities. Conversely, the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) personnel are responsible for securing industrial units, government infrastructure, and various government establishments in India.
The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is tasked with the duty of upholding law and order in both states and union territories. Moreover, they are mandated to assist in critical situations or emergencies.

Q5. Which one of the following statements best reflects the Chief purpose of the 
'Constitution' of a country?
  1. It determines the objective for the making of necessary laws.
  2. It enables the creation of political offices and a government.
  3. It defines and limits the powers of government.
  4. It secures social justice, social equality and social security.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation: Chief Purpose of Constitution – Fundamental principles, structure, and operations of a government, as well as delineate the rights and freedoms of individuals within a nation. It stands as the highest law of the land, offering a framework for governance that maintains the equilibrium of power, safeguards individual rights, and directs the functioning of the state.





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