NCERT Notes: Endogenic Processes – Diastrophism, Volcanism [Geography Notes For UPSC] l


NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC Civil Services Exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Endogenic processes.

Endogenic Processes (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Endogenic Process

Endogenic Processes

  • The energy originating from within the earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes.
  • This energy is mostly produced by rotational and tidal friction, radioactivity, and primordial heat from the origin of the earth.
  • This energy due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere.
  • Due to differences in geothermal gradients and heat flow from within, strength and crustal thickness, the action of endogenic forces are uneven.
  • Therefore the tectonically regulated original crustal surface is not uniform.


  • All processes that move, lift or build up portions of the crust of Earth come under diastrophism.
  • They include:
    • Orogenic Processes:
      • It includes mountain building through severe folding and faulting affecting long and narrow belts of the crust of Earth.
      • Orogeny is a mountain building process.
    • Epeirogenic processes:
      • It involves the uplift or warping of large parts of the crust of the earth.
      • Epeirogeny is a continental building process.
    • Earthquakes comprising local, comparatively minor movements.
    • Plate tectonics comprising horizontal movements of crustal plates.
  • Through the processes of epeirogeny, orogeny, earthquakes and plate tectonics, there can be fracturing and faulting of the crust.
  • Each of these courses causes pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) changes which in turn induce metamorphism of rocks.


  • Volcanism comprises the movement of magma onto or toward the surface of the earth and also the creation of several extrusive and intrusive volcanic forms.

Endogenic Processes (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

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